Snow is uncommon, and temperatures dip below freezing only a few times a year. Once renowned for its shipyards—the Titanic was built there—Belfast has lost much of its industrial base. Skip to Job Postings , Search Close. This pattern was firmly established in the case of local government,  where gerrymandered ward boundaries rigged local government elections to ensure unionist control of some local councils with nationalist majorities.
The Northern Irish see themselves as distinct from the English but connected to their compatriots in the Republic of Ireland. Violent antagonism between Catholics and Protestants developed in the nineteenth century and resulted from history and religion. The influx of settlers from England and Scotland was not welcomed by the native Irish, since the newcomers were awarded the best parcels of land. At first, the minority Ulster Protestants could not dominate the Catholic majority, but after the victory of the Protestants supporting William of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne, they prevailed.
Particularly in Belfast, most decisions involving public planning are made to preserve public security in the midst of "the Troubles. Automobiles are not allowed in those zones to reduce the risk of car bombings. Cars that are parked in commercial parking lots are given a quick inspection for potential bombs. The boundaries that separate Catholic and Protestant neighborhoods are enforced by the police. Graffiti and wall murals appear throughout urban areas, depicting the sentiments of Unionists and Nationalists.
In the case of the Nationalists, IRA propaganda and images of men with guns tell supporters to "fight back" and state that "we will meet force with force.
In a sign welcoming travelers to the County of Londonderry, Nationalists have expressed their anti-British feelings by scratching out the word "London" and identifying the county as Derry, as it is known among Catholics. At Free Derry Corner, two large murals commemorate the events of A memorial to fourteen unarmed marchers who were shot by British paramilitary troops during a civil rights march in Derry on Sunday 30 January Bloody Sunday, in which thirteen people were killed and another fourteen were injured, after British soldiers opened fire during an illegal demonstration in The Ulster Architectural Heritage Society is an organization that educates the public and lobbies for historic buildings in nine counties in Northern Ireland.
Food in Daily Life. The diet is rather simple. Porridge or oatmeal often is eaten at breakfast. At midmorning, one stops for a cup of tea or coffee with cookies or biscuits. Most people eat the main meal at midday. This meal generally is meat-based, featuring beef, chicken, pork, or lamb. Fish and chips are eaten for a quick meal, and a rich soup with plenty of bread can be bought in taverns at lunchtime.
Potatoes are a staple, but onions, cabbage, peas, and carrots are eaten just as frequently. Irish stew combines the chief elements of the cuisine with mutton, potatoes, and onions. Bakeries carry a variety of breads, with brown bread and white soda bread served most often with meals. White sliced bread is called pan in Irish.
Belfast's soda bread enjoys an excellent reputation; made of flour and buttermilk it is found throughout the country. In the evening, families eat a simple meal of leftovers or eggs and toast. A drink generally means beer, either lager or stout. Guinness, brewed in Dublin, is the black beer most often drunk. Whiskey also is served in pubs, and coffee is also available.
Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. Food customs of the Northern Irish are not really different from the practices of the Irish in the Republic of Ireland. Christmas supper includes meat such as chicken and ham followed by plum pudding. Being a strongly Catholic country, the Friday night prohibition of meat is observed by Catholics. Since fish is permitted, the Friday evening meal generally features trout or salmon. The economy of Northern Ireland is based on agriculture and manufacturing.
The agriculture sector benefits from rich farming soil. Agriculture contributes to manufacturing through processing of livestock and dairy products. Northern Ireland's principle industries are textiles, shipbuilding, and engineering. Unequal resources and unequal opportunities resulting from colonization have created conflict. The ethnic and religious strife is really a matter of an uneven distribution of economic resources and opportunities.
Land Tenure and Property. The current distribution of land between Catholics and Protestants can be traced back to the settlement patterns of the seventeenth century. The eastern counties of Antrum and Down were settled by the Scottish because of their proximity to Scotland. The settlers who later came from the north of England got land in Monaghan. In the s, the incoming Protestants took the best land for farming, leaving the Catholics with less fertile and more mountainous parcels.
As a result, a majority of Protestants established roots in Antrum and Down as well as Armagh and Londonderry. The Industrial Revolution occurred in Belfast during the twentieth century and made the country the world's major linen center and the home of two flourishing shipyards.
The success of shipbuilding spawned related industries in engineering and rope making. Northern Ireland, Belfast in particular, has always been an industrial center. Early in the twentieth century, the major industries were shipbuilding and rope making. The success of Belfast's industries kept it inextricably bound to Great Britain, from which it imported its raw materials.
The owners and managers of most industries were Protestants, reinforcing the paternalistic relationship to England. As much as 80 percent of external trade is with England. Textiles, in particular linen, are the major export. Grain also is exported; during the Great Famine, grain and foodstuffs were exported to England, with little done to relieve the starving Irish people.
Catholics generally are excluded from skilled and semiskilled jobs in shipyards and linen mills. They historically were restricted to menial jobs on the docks, earning lower wages than the Protestants who worked in skilled jobs and management positions. Ulster Unionists tend to own businesses. Many Catholic Republicans are unemployed. The class structure renders Protestants superior in that they dominate the professional and business classes, tending to own the majority of businesses and large farms.
Catholics tend to be unskilled workers or work small farms. Catholics tend to be poorer than Protestants as a result of economic inequality that often is attributed to ethnic and religious roots. The general enmity between the two groups is exacerbated by long standing prejudices. Protestants generally believe that Catholics are lazy and irresponsible. Social separation contributes to these perceptions. Protestant and Catholic families live in separate enclaves and worship separately, and their children study in segregated schools.
Irish Catholics may tend to drink, whereas Protestants are viewed as more British and puritanical. On Sundays, Catholics often engage in leisure or recreation activities after mass, while Protestants scorn Sunday leisure activities, often choosing not to garden in deference to the sabbath. Symbols of Social Stratification.
Protestants tend to comport themselves as British, members of the United Kingdom. In regard to owning land and businesses, Protestants constitute the economic, social, and political elite. Their accent and manners are in keeping with those of Great Britain. Catholics, who tend to be poorer and have larger families, speak Gaelic, although not fluently. Most Protestants belong to the Orange Order, which is dedicated to maintaining the Protestant religion and Protestant social superiority.
Northern Ireland is symbolically headed by the British monarch but it is governed by an elected parliament. The Ireland Act of established a parliament that was suspended in because of the ethnic violence. The makeup of the parliament is intended to include fifty-two delegates in the Northern Ireland House of Commons who serve five-year terms. The House selects twenty-four Senate members who serve eight-year terms.
House members choose the prime minister from the political party that holds the most seats. The judicial system is similar to that of England, in which the courts base decisions on parliamentary legislation and common law.
A magistrate hears minor cases, and more serious cases are heard by the Crown Court, which is made up of a judge and jury. Any appeals go before a nine-judge court in the British House of Lords. There is no written constitution. The three viable political options are the continuance as part of the United Kingdom, association with the Republic of Ireland, and independence. The country has the Farmhouse in mountains of Mourn.
Northern Ireland has lush green countryside and stout mountains leading to a steep and craggy shoreline. Leadership and Political Officials. Each of the twenty-six districts has an elected council. Belfast and Londonderry have their own councils, which focuses on education, public works, local planning and public health.
Protestants tend to hold most elected positions, and this has led to an uneven distribution of resources. In the s, the Catholic Emancipation Act allowed Catholics to seek election to the British legislature. However, Protestant leaders in Northern Ireland gerrymandered the voting districts so that the Catholics were always a minority in every district.
Social Problems and Control. Most violence results from the civil unrest between Catholics and Protestants. Bombings and individual attacks generally are motivated by the politically charged atmosphere and segregation. Nonpolitical crimes are generally based on socioeconomic inequity. Burglary and theft accounted for nearly three-quarters of all recorded crime in Northern Ireland in Between and , the number of arrests for drug-related offenses more than tripled.
The presence of British police and military personnel is pervasive. There are police checkpoints, and citizens must carry documents routinely. The Ulster Volunteer Force is a Unionist military organization that is highly secretive and has been labeled a terrorist group since it is openly anti-Catholic. The Ulster Defense Association was a legal organization until The Royal Ulster Constabulary and the British Army are responsible for keeping the peace; the Royal Ulster Constabulary employs a special branch of army intelligence to anticipate and prevent all terrorist attacks.
The Irish National Liberation Army is composed of older, more experienced members. In this secretive group, which is a military wing of the IRA, each member knows only the names of his immediate colleagues. The IRA has detonated bombs under cars, striking at the moment a police patrol passes.
The IRA has killed twenty to thirty soldiers and police officers per year since the s. Young Nationalists are recruited for paramilitary service. First they join Fionna Eireann as a scout or recruit.
To prove themselves, young initiates must participate in the beating or kneecapping of a Protestant. The military carries out regular security patrols in Unionist and Loyalist areas on foot or in police or army vehicles. The Prevention of Terrorism Act was passed to prevent the IRA from extending its attacks to Great Britain; it authorizes detention for up to seven days for anyone seemingly engaged in terrorism in Northern Ireland, Great Britain, or the Republic of Ireland.
Social insurance benefits exist for orphans, widows, pensioners, and persons on disability or maternity leave. The state, the employer, and the employee all contribute to the fund that provides these benefits. Health services and medicines are free to all persons with long-term illnesses.
He says his 25 years at the recycling social enterprise has been more than just a job. A disused yard at Glenarm harbour is to be redeveloped in a major project aimed at helping the wider area's regeneration. Royal Mail is launching its annual recruitment drive in a bid to fill temporary positions in Northern Ireland over the busy festive period. The body representing small businesses in Northern Ireland has said talk of a no-deal Brexit is "very concerning".
Unemployment is near record lows and the economy is undergoing the process of rebalancing to be more private sector-led through a booming jobs market. There are no devolved, locally appointed ministers. There is even a growing suspicion that the Secretary of State is too passive on the need for policy initiatives.
The search is on to find an authorised decision-making procedure that will make some critical decisions so long as they fall short of what might be termed 'direct rule'. A move by Diageo to acquire 10 new tankers from a Londonderry firm for its cross-border beer operation has been described as a major vote of confidence in the all-island supply chain in the face of a 'no deal' Brexit.
Cyber technology firm Titan IC has said it's moved into new offices in response to growth and expansion plans. Growing thirst for Scotch sees exports up by Livestock worrying now at an all-time high: Inflation tipped to have fallen to 2. Proposals sought for revamp of 1. Weekly Business Digest Newsletter This week's business news headlines, directly to your inbox every Tuesday.
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