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En savoir Publiée il y a 19 minutes. En savoir Publiée il y a environ 12 heures. En savoir Publiée il y a 5 jours. Marseille continued to prosper as a Roman city, becoming an early center of Christianity during the Western Roman Empire. The city maintained its position as a premier maritime trading hub even after its capture by the Visigoths in the 5th century AD, although the city went into decline following the sack of AD by the forces of Charles Martel.
It became part of the County of Provence during the 10th century, although its renewed prosperity was curtailed by the Black Death of the 14th century and sack of the city by the Crown of Aragon in The city's fortunes rebounded with the ambitious building projects of René of Anjou , Count of Provence, who strengthened the city's fortifications during the midth century.
During the 16th century the city hosted a naval fleet with the combined forces of the Franco-Ottoman alliance , which threatened the ports and navies of Genoa and the Holy Roman Empire. Marseille lost a significant portion of its population during the Great Plague of Marseille in , but the population had recovered by mid century. In the city became a focal point of the French Revolution and was the birthplace of France's national anthem , La Marseillaise.
The Industrial Revolution and establishment of the French Empire during the 19th century allowed for further expansion of the city, although it was occupied by the German Wehrmacht in November and subsequently heavily damaged during World War II.
The city has since become a major center for immigrant communities from former French colonies, such as French Algeria. Marseille is a major French centre for trade and industry, with excellent transportation infrastructure roads, sea port and airport.
Marseille Provence Airport, is the fourth largest in France. In May , the French financial magazine L'Expansion named Marseille the most dynamic of France's large cities, citing figures showing that 7, companies had been created in the city since Historically, the economy of Marseille was dominated by its role as a port of the French Empire, linking the North African colonies of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia with Metropolitan France.
The Old Port was replaced as the main port for trade by the Port de la Joliette during the Second Empire and now contains restaurants, offices, bars and hotels and functions mostly as a private marina.
The majority of the port and docks, which experienced decline in the s after the oil crisis , have been recently redeveloped with funds from the European Union. Fishing remains important in Marseille and the food economy of Marseille is fed by the local catch; a daily fish market is still held on the Quai des Belges of the Old Port.
The economy of Marseille and its region is still linked to its commercial port, the first French port and the fifth European port by cargo tonnage , which lies north of the Old Port and eastern in Fos-sur-Mer.
Some 45, jobs are linked to the port activities and it represents 4 billion euros added value to the regional economy. However, in the early s, the growth in container traffic was being stifled by the constant strikes and social upheaval. Petroleum is shipped northward to the Paris basin by pipeline.
The city also serves as France's leading centre of oil refining. In recent years, the city has also experienced a large growth in service sector employment and a switch from light manufacturing to a cultural, high-tech economy.
The urban operation Euroméditerranée has developed a large offer of offices and thus Marseille hosts one of the main business district in France. Marseille is the home of three main technopoles: The port is also an important arrival base for millions of people each year, with 2. Several urban projects have been developed to make Marseille attractive.
Thus new parks, museums, public spaces and real estate projects aim to improve the city's quality of life Parc du 26e Centenaire , Old Port of Marseille ,  numerous places in Euroméditerranée to attract firms and people. Marseille municipality acts to develop Marseille as a regional nexus for entertainment in the south of France with high concentration of museums, cinemas, theatres, clubs, bars, restaurants, fashion shops, hotels, and art galleries.
The city of Marseille is divided into 16 municipal arrondissements , which are themselves informally divided into neighbourhoods French: The arrondissements are regrouped in pairs, into 8 sectors, each with a mayor and council like the arrondissements in Paris and Lyon. There are councilmembers in total, two-thirds sitting in the sector councils and one third in the city council. The 9th arrondissement of Marseille is the largest in terms of area because it comprises parts of Calanques National Park.
With a population of 89, , the 13th arrondissement of Marseille is the most populous one. Gaston Defferre PS was consecutively reelected six times as Mayor of Marseille from until his death in Gaudin was reelected in , and In recent years, the Communist Party has lost most of its strength in the northern boroughs of the city, whereas the National Front has received significant support. At the last municipal election in , Marseille was divided between the northern arrondissements dominated by the left PS and far-right FN and the southern part of town dominated by the right-wing UMP.
Marseille is also divided in twelve cantons , each of them sending two members to the Departmental Council of the Bouches-du-Rhône department. Because of its pre-eminence as a Mediterranean port, Marseille has always been one of the main gateways into France. This has attracted many immigrants and made Marseille a cosmopolitan melting pot. By the end of the 18th century about half the population originated from elsewhere in Provence mostly and also from southern France.
Economic conditions and political unrest in Europe and the rest of the world brought several other waves of immigrants during the 20th century: In , it was reported that 70, city residents were considered to be of Maghrebi origin, mostly from Algeria. The second largest group in Marseille in terms of single nationalities were from the Comoros, amounting to some 45, people. Currently, over one third of the population of Marseille can trace their roots back to Italy. Since immigrants from Eastern Europe travel to work in the city of Marseille, attracted by better job opportunities and the good climate of this Mediterranean city.
The main nationalities are Romanians and Poles. Marseille is a city that has its own unique culture and is proud of its differences from the rest of France. There is also an extensive arts centre in La Friche , a former match factory behind the Sainst-Charles station. The Alcazar, until the s a well known music hall and variety theatre , has recently been completely remodelled behind its original façade and now houses the central municipal library.
Marseille has also been important in the arts. The small port of l'Estaque on the far end of the Bay of Marseille became a favourite haunt for artists, including Auguste Renoir , Paul Cézanne who frequently visited from his home in Aix , Georges Braque and Raoul Dufy. These cultural events generated more than 11 million visits.
The most commonly used tarot deck takes its name from the city; it has been called the Tarot de Marseille since the s—a name coined for commercial use by the French cardmaker and cartomancer Paul Marteau, owner of B—P Grimaud. Previously this deck was called Tarot italien Italian Tarot and even earlier it was simply called Tarot. Before being de Marseille , it was used to play the local variant of tarocchi before it became used in cartomancy at the end of the 18th century, following the trend set by Antoine Court de Gébelin.
The name Tarot de Marseille Marteau used the name ancien Tarot de Marseille was used by contrast to other types of Tarots such as Tarot de Besançon ; those names were simply associated with cities where there were many cardmakers in the 18th century previously several cities in France were involved in cardmaking. Another local tradition is the making of santons , small hand-crafted figurines for the traditional Provençal Christmas creche. Marseille's main cultural attraction was, since its creation at the end of the 18th century and until the late s, the Opéra.
Located near the Old Port and the Canebière, at the very heart of the city, its architectural style was comparable to the classical trend found in other opera houses built at the same time in Lyon and Bordeaux.
In , a fire almost completely destroyed the house, leaving only the stone colonnade and peristyle from the original façade. Currently the Opéra de Marseille stages six or seven operas each year. Since , the Ballet national de Marseille has performed at the opera house; its director from its foundation to was Roland Petit.
There are several popular festivals in different neighborhoods, with concerts, animations, and outdoor bars, like the Fête du Panier in June.
On 21 June, there are dozens of free concerts in the city as part of France's Fête de la Musique , featuring music from all over the world. Being free events, many Marseille residents attend. Marseille hosts a Gay Pride event in early July. In October, the Fiesta des Suds offers many concerts of world music. Marseille is also well known in France for its hip hop music. In a slightly different way, ragga music is represented by Massilia Sound System.
Marseille has been the setting for many films, mostly produced in France or Hollywood. Taxi 4 was filmed in Marseille The French television series Plus belle la vie is set in an imaginary quarter , Le Mistral , of Marseille.
It is filmed in the Panier quarter of Marseille. The Netflix series Marseille is set in the city in the s. Marseille is listed as a major centre of art and history. The city has many museums and galleries and there are many ancient buildings and churches of historical interest. Most of the attractions of Marseille including shopping areas are located in the 1st, 2nd, 6th and 7th arrondissements.
In addition to the two in the Centre de la Vieille Charité, described above, the main museums are: The music room in the Grobet-Labadié museum. The Palais Longchamp with its monumental fountain.
The main attractions outside the city centre include: A number of the faculties of the three universities that comprise Aix-Marseille University are located in Marseille:. Scientific research is concentrated at several sites across the city, including Luminy, where there are institutes in developmental biology the IBDML , immunology CIML , marine sciences and neurobiology INMED , at the CNRS Joseph Aiguier campus a world-renowned institute of molecular and environmental microbiology and at the Timone hospital site known for work in medical microbiology.
Marseille is also home to the headquarters of the IRD , which promotes research into questions affecting developing countries. The city is served by an international airport, Marseille Provence Airport , located in Marignane. The airport is the fifth busiest French airport, and known the 4th most important European traffic growth in Gare de Marseille Saint-Charles is Marseille's main railway station. In addition, the night train Intercités de Nuit from Luxembourg and Strasbourg stops here on its way to Nice, whereas the night train from Paris to Nice serves the Gare de Marseille-Blancarde.
There is a new long distance bus station adjacent to new modern extension to the Gare Saint-Charles with destinations mostly to other Bouches-du-Rhône towns, including buses to Aix-en-Provence, Cassis, La Ciotat and Aubagne. The city is also served with 11 other regional trains stations in the east and the north of the city.
It consists of two lines: Line 1 blue between Castellane and La Rose opened in and Line 2 red between Sainte-Marguerite-Dromel and Bougainville opened between and The Métro system operates on a turnstile system, with tickets purchased at the nearby adjacent automated booths.
An extensive bus network serves the city and suburbs of Marseille, with lines and buses. As in many other French cities, a bike-sharing service nicknamed "Le vélo", free for trips of less than half an hour, was introduced by the city council in A free ferry service operates between the two opposite quays of the Old Port. From ferry shuttle services operate between the Old Port and Pointe Rouge; in spring it will also run to l'Estaque.
The city boasts a wide variety of sports facilities and teams. The most popular team is the city's football club , Olympique de Marseille , which was the finalist of the UEFA Champions League in , before winning the competition in The club had a history of success under then-owner Bernard Tapie. The club's home, the Stade Vélodrome , which can seat around 67, people, also functions for other local sports, as well as the national rugby team.
Sailing is a major sport in Marseille. The wind conditions allow regattas in the warm waters of the Mediterranean. The event draws the world's best sailing teams to Marseille. The identical supplied boats J Boats J racing yachts are raced two at a time in an on the water dogfight which tests the sailors and skippers to the limits of their physical abilities.
Match racing is an ideal sport for spectators in Marseille, as racing in close proximity to the shore provides excellent views. The city was also considered as a possible venue for America's Cup. Marseille is also a place for other water sports such as windsurfing and powerboating. Marseille has three golf courses.
The city has dozens of gyms and several public swimming pools. An annual footrace is held between the city and neighbouring Cassis: Marseille is currently officially twinned with 13 cities: In addition, Marseille has signed various types of formal agreements of cooperation with 27 cities all over the world: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the Mediterranean city. For other uses, see Marseille disambiguation. For other uses, see Massilia disambiguation and Marsiglia disambiguation. From top to bottom, left to right: History of Marseille and Timeline of Marseille. Arrondissements of Marseille and Cantons of Marseille. This section may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. Please help by editing the article to make improvements to the overall structure.
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